FZJ-IEK / Forschungszentrum Jülich
Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) is the largest German Research Centre and part of the Helmholtz Association. The Institute for Energy and Climate Research 8: Troposphere is engaged in atmospheric research with a particular strong focus on the innovative ground-based and airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols, and global to regional-scale modelling.
FZJ is involved in the observation of the atmosphere from passenger aircraft from the beginning:
- In 1993 the MOZAIC programme was initiated together with Airbus, Laboratoire d’ Aerologie of CNRS, Meteo France and four European airlines (Lufthansa, Air France, Sabena, Austrian).
- EU FP6 Design Study for New Infrastructures IAGOS (Integration of Routine Aircraft measurements into a Global Observing System; 4/2005-1/2009) was coordinated by FZJ and prepared the technical and logistical grounds for the transition from MOZAIC into a sustainable research infrastructure with enhanced scope and geographical coverage.
- EU FP7 preparatory phase project for IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System – a European Research Infrastructure) with 14 partners was coordinated by FZJ.
- FZJ is now co-coordinating IAGOS-AISBL as the governance structure for the sustainable operation of IAGOS, together with CNRS as the coordinator IAGOS-F.
- Coordinating institution of IAGOS-D
- Leading German partner in IAGOS AISBL
- Coordination of the technical and legal work in Germany and within IAGOS AISBL
- Operation of instruments for H2O, NOx, NOy and aerosol particles operated on IAGOS-CORE aircraft
MPI_BGC / Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC), founded in 1997, is dedicated to the study of long-term interactions among the biosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the oceans. The biogeochemical systems department focuses on atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases and their application with numerical models to quantify sources and sinks.
MPI-BGC is also partner in the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), a new research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions. As ICOS also has a strong German component, an important aspect is the relationship between IAGOS and ICOS at the national level.
MPI-BGC coordinated the EU FP7 project IGAS (IAGOS for the GMES Atmospheric Service) which prepared the connection between the data collected on board civil aircraft through IAGOS and the pre-operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service CAMS.
- Implementation of high precision instrumentation to measure the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 into IAGOS-CORE aircraft
- Operation of instruments for CO2 and CH4 operated on IAGOS-CORE aircraft and in the IAGOS-CARIBIC container
KIT-IMK / Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research
The Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research is part of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). KIT-IMK employs various in-situ and remote sensing instruments on ground, aircraft, balloons, and satellites as well as atmospheric models for trace gases and aerosol/cloud particles.
KIT-IMK is involved in the observation of the atmosphere from passenger aircraft from the beginning:
- KIT initiated CARIBIC in the early 1990s together with MPI-C and TROPOS and contributed throughout CARIBIC I (1997-2002 on board a Boeing 767 by LTU airlines) and CARIBIC II (since 2004 on board the Lufthansa A340-600 D-AIHE).
- Since 2015, KIT-IMK is coordinating IAGOS-CARIBIC.
- Coordination of IAGOS-CARIBIC
- Operation of the IAGOS-CARIBIC container
- Operation of IAGOS-CARIBIC instruments for O3, H2O and cloud/ice water, isotopic composition of water vapour, organic compounds such as acetone, methanol, or acetonitrile
MPI-C / Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (MPI-C) is one of the leading institutes for atmospheric chemistry in the world. At the MPI-C almost the entire atmospheric spectrum ranging from laboratory kinetics, over all kinds of atmospheric field measurements, to advanced modelling (EMAC, MATCH-MPIC), is covered.
MPI-C developed in cooperation with KIT and TROPOS the first CARIBIC container system that operated on board an LTU Boeing 767 from 1997 until 2002. MPI-C also took the lead to develop the new CARIBIC observation system for the Airbus A340-600 aircraft series since 2003 with the strong support of Lufthansa. The coordination of IAGOS-CARIBIC was transferred to KIT in 2015.
- Laboratory-based GC measurements of >20 NMHCs on >100 air samples per months
- Operation of an SP-2 instrument for black carbon particles in the IAGOS-CARIBIC container
- Development and operation of an aerosol mass spectrometer which shall be installed in the IAGOS-CARIBIC container in 2016.
TROPOS / Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research
The Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) is one of the leading European research institutes in the field of atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. As World Calibration Centre for Aerosol Physics (WCCAP) within the framework of WMO-GAW, TROPOS provides know-how, experience, and instrumentation for the development, calibration, and operation of aerosol devices and inlet systems.
From 1993 on TROPOS was one of the founders of the CARIBIC project. Under the lead of MPI-C (until 2014) and KIT (from 2015) TROPOS supports the coordination of IAGOS-CARIBIC.
- Design of the IAGOS aerosol inlets
- Operation and data evaluation of the aerosol instruments in the IAGOS-CARIBIC container
IPA-DLR / Institute of Atmospheric Physics at DLR
DLR is the national aeronautics and space research centre of Germany. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA) of DLR focusses on the research of physical and chemical processes of the troposphere and stratosphere. Relevant atmospheric processes are investigated using remote sensing, computational models and research aircraft.
DLR has been engaged in both IAGOS-CORE and IAGOS-CARIBIC, whereby the development of the IAGOS-CORE aerosol package P2c was transferred to partner FZJ.
- Maintenance, calibration, and operation of the IAGOS-CARIBIC reactive nitrogen measurement system
IUP / Institute of Environmental Physics
The Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP) at the University of Heidelberg is well known for its environmental research activities covering a wide spectrum of processes in atmospheric sciences, soil sciences, hydrology, and oceanography. The institute is specialist in remote sensing applications based on DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) systems.
- DOAS measurements on board of IAGOS-CARIBIC to monitor a range of trace gases e. g. NO2, SO2, HCHO, HONO, and BrO
enviscope GmbH, with its aeronautical partner Gomolzig Flugzeug- und Maschinenbau GmbH, has strong experience in the modification of scientific instruments for airborne applications. This SME aims to link the scientific demands in atmospheric research to the technical and legal requirements of aeronautical systems.
- Operation of the IAGOS-CORE Maintenance Centre
- Certification of scientific instruments according to EASA rules
- Manufacturing and certification of the CARIBIC container
Deutsche Lufthansa AG
Deutsche Lufthansa AG (DLH) is a major international airline with more than 100.000 employees serving 274 destinations in 104 countries world-wide. DLH is the most important supporting airline in the climate research projects MOZAIC and now IAGOS-CORE by operating 2 (and in between 3) aircraft (out of initially 5 aircraft). The company is also strongly involved in the climate research project IAGOS-CARIBIC where a long haul aircraft has been modified to carry a fully automated laboratory on regular long haul flights. All together DLH supports climate research since more than 2 decades by carrying scientific instrumentation on civil aircraft during regular passenger flights.
- DLH contributes as an informal partner to IAGOS-D
- Operation of two IAGOS-CORE and one IAGOS-CARIBIC aircraft
- Support of instrument development and certification
Deutsche Lufthansa AG
Dr. Gerd Saueressig